creating a
healthier future

Biointerfaces and Nanotechnology

The Biointerfaces and Nanotechnology (BN) scientific platform gathers fundamental and cutting-edge technologies for the chemical, physical, and mechanical characterization of materials and biological samples at the macro-micro-nano scale. We hold expertise in the characterization of hydrogels, organoids, and tissue-engineered matrices (mechanical and rheological properties), functionalized surfaces (surface chemistry, morphology, wettability), and nanoparticles for diagnostics/therapeutics/theranostics (size, charge, ligand-receptor recognition), among other (bio) materials.

Our mission is to contribute to excellence in advanced materials research in health-related fields. We also have an educational mission, providing hands-on training to i3S users in the framework of their research projects, and organizing pre-post-graduate courses.

Access to equipment and expert staff support is available to the i3S community, academia, and industry (national and international level) on a fee-for-service basis.

For more information on the available techniques/ equipment, contact us by phone (+351 22 040 8800 Ext: 6057/ 5058) email (, or through this link. The BN Scientific platform is at laboratory 004.S2.


Platform Head



  • Surface characterization of materials and biological samples:
    • Mechanical properties (atomic force microscope and nanoindentor)
    • Morphology (atomic force microscope)
    • Biomolecular interactions (quartz crystal microbalance)
    • Chemical bonds identification (FT-IR spectrophotometer)
    • Cell-cell/surface interactions and receptor/ligand distribution (atomic force microscope with force spectroscopy and molecular recognition with imaging)
    • Wettability and surface free energy (contact angle device)
    • Charge/ zeta potential at the solid/liquid interface (electro-kinetic analyzer
  • Thickness of ultrathin films deposited on reflective surfaces (imaging ellipsometer)
  • Nanoparticle characterization in solution - size, charge, isoelectric point, and melting point (Zetasizer)
  • Polymer molecular weight distribution (GPC/SEC)
  • Bulk properties of materials and biological samples
    • Mechanical properties (biodynamic mechanical analyzer, dynamic mechanical analyzer, and rheometer)
  • Chemical bonds identification (FT-IR spectrophotometer using transmission)
  • Detection of biochemical events (eg. cytotoxicity, cell viability and proliferation, protein and ATP quantitation, ELISA assays, enzyme kinetics, GFP-/Luciferase-based gene expression assays) in microtiter plates (multi-mode plate reader combining absorbance, fluorescence, and luminescence detection modes)


Atomic force microscope (AFM) coupled to an inverted fluorescence microscope (IFM) and a top-view camera 

The NanoWizard V AFM was explicitly designed to study biological samples (molecules, cells, and tissues) in physiological conditions (media, temperature, CO2, and humidity, with or without sample perfusion). The potentialities of high-speed (200 Hz) imaging with high-resolution modes allow the observation of DNA origami nanostructures, cell extensions, microvilli, cytoskeleton reorganization, etc, in real-time. Simultaneous imaging of topography and mapping of molecular recognition events/ nanomechanical properties is possible through the Quantitative Imaging (QITM) mode. Additionally, forces and unfolding lengths are likely to be quantified. Force spectroscopy measurement of cell-molecule, cell-cell, and cell-tissue interactions is possible using the HybridStageTM (combined motorized and piezo stage) due to its high z-piezoelectric range (15 to 200 μm) and wide-ranged motorized stage. This allows the mapping of large biological samples (15 x 15 mm2) and the assessment of static and dynamic mechanical properties in frequencies ranging from 0.5 Hz to 350 Hz. A top-view camera helps the analysis of rough, corrugated, and opaque samples, while the coupling with an inverted fluorescence microscope (Observer Z7 Zeiss) allows simultaneous imaging of biological samples in bright field, phase contrast, and fluorescence.


Responsible for the assays: Manuela Brás


Nanoindentor (PIUMA, Optics11Life)  

The Piuma nanoindenter is a table-top compact equipment used to characterize static and dynamic micro-mechanical properties of soft samples (hydrogels, scaffolds, engineered tissues, spheroids, and 3D printed biomaterials), down to cell-length scales. This indentation instrument uses a fiber-optic sensor to push a spherical glass tip on the surface of the sample. By monitoring the sample deformation/displacement, the nanoindenter can provide the mechanical features of the indented spot. Force-distance curves are fitted with Hertz and/ or Oliver-Pharr models to obtain the Young’s, storage and loss moduli. By applying different frequency cycles in one force-distance curve, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) may also be performed. A DINO camera is available to visualize the sample roughness (lateral or below the sample stage).


Responsible for the assays: Manuela Brás

Rheometer (Kinexus Pro, Netzsch) 

The Kinexus Rheometer is used to characterize the rheological properties of materials, being most helpful in determining the viscosity and viscoelasticity of polymers, such as the toughness and the elastic and viscous modules. The rheometer allows the application of 4 different modes of assays: viscometry, oscillation, creep and recovery, and stress and relaxation. It then determines changes in sample properties resulting from changes in the external conditions applied, such as stress, strain, timescale, and temperature. The rheometer uses samples in bulk solid, molten, semi-solid (such as pastes, creams, and gels), or viscous to dilute liquid solution.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal


Dynamical Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) (Triton 2000, Perkin Elmer) 

The DMA is mostly used to characterize the mechanical properties and the viscoelastic nature of polymers at the macro-scale. Samples may be bulk solids, films, fibers, gels, or very viscous liquids. The DMA can detect changes in sample properties by applying different deformation modes: tension, compression, shear, single, dual cantilever, bending and, 3D point bending, by controlling five experimental variables: temperature, time, frequency, force, and strain. Parameters that can be obtained using this technique are:

  • Storage Modulus (E', Measures material stiffness) and loss Modulus (E'', viscosity).
  • Damping Factor (tan δ): Compares elasticity to viscosity.
  • Complex Modulus (E):* Combines E' and E''.
  • Glass Transition Temperature (Tg): Identifies critical material transitions.
  • Elastic Modulus: Evaluates stiffness.
  • Loss Angle (δ): Shows phase shift between stress and strain.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal


Ellipsometer with imaging (Ellip) (EP3, Accurion) 

Ellipsometry is an optical technique for investigating thin films' dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric extinction). Ellipsometry measures the change of polarisation of light upon reflection or transmission. By comparing the measured polarization with a model, our Ellipsometer (EP3, Accurion, Germany) can determine the physical properties of the films deposited on reflecting surfaces, like the refraction index and extinction coefficient index and, with these, the thickness of single layers or complex multilayer stacks. The equipment uses a 532 nm laser and allows the variation of the angle of incidence. Microscopic maps of thickness distribution and refractive indices can also be obtained.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal

Zetasizer Nano ZS (ZS, Malvern Panalytical

Zetasizer Nano ZS can characterize particles or molecules dispersed in a liquid medium, namely the particle size and zeta potential, in a wide range of particle concentrations. The Zetasizer Nano ZS is equipped with a 633 nm laser and allows temperature control from 10 to 90 °C. It is also equipped with an MPT-2 auto titrator option to allow measurements of size and/or zeta, in dynamic conditions, varying the pH, dilution, and additive concentrations.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal


Optical contact angle device (OCA 15, Data Physics)  

The OCA 15 plus device is used to evaluate the affinity of a surface to a specific liquid, usually known as surface wettability (hydrophilicity in the case of water). The principle of this equipment is based on the optical measurement of the contact angle q between a liquid drop and a surface, which is a quantitative measure of the wetting of a solid by a liquid. Typically, the drop is released from an electronic syringe needle onto the sample, which can be placed inside a thermostated environmental chamber, to allow studies at controlled temperature and humidity. This instrument also allows the determination of the surface tension of pure liquids or aqueous protein solutions, as well as the quantification of the surface free energy of solids and their components. These components can be obtained from experimental values of contact angles measured with two or more testing liquids whose surface tension components are known. The affinity of a specific biomolecule affinity (such as a protein) to a surface may also be determined by combining the information provided by contact angle measurements with that of the surface tension (and its components) of the liquid. This is known as the work of adhesion.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal

Zeta Potential Electro Kinetic Analyzer (EKA, Anton-Paar) 

The Electro Kinetic Analyzer (EKA) can be used to investigate the zeta potential of macroscopic solids based on a streaming potential or streaming current measurement. The zeta potential is related to the surface charge at a solid/liquid interface and provides insight into the surface chemistry and liquid phase adsorption processes. It is, therefore, an interfacial property of great importance to understand the behavior of solid materials in several biological/technical processes. The EKA instrument has five different measuring cells for flexible sample mounting, which may accommodate macroscopic solids of almost any size and shape: planar solid samples, films, fibers, foils, granular particles, and powders.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal


Gel permeation chromatographer/ size exclusion chromatographer (GPC/ SEC) (OmniSEC/ Malvern Panalytical) 

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), also known as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), is a powerful analytical technique essential for characterizing macromolecules, particularly polymers. This method is pivotal in understanding and predicting polymer behavior, as it offers a unique capability to analyze the complete molecular weight distribution of a polymer, a factor that significantly impacts its physical properties.

In GPC/SEC, analytes are separated based on their hydrodynamic size (volume). To initiate the analysis, the sample is dissolved in an appropriate solvent and then introduced into a column filled with closely packed porous beads having defined pore sizes. Larger molecules, due to their inability to enter these pores, move swiftly through the column, while smaller molecules spend more time within the pores, resulting in delayed elution. Our GPC/SEC system at our I3S core facility uses triple detection, incorporating three primary detectors: a refractometer, a viscometer, and a light scattering detector. Each of these detectors provides distinct but complementary data. The light scattering detector estimates molecular weight, the molecular viscometer determines density (which relates to conformation and branching chains), and the refractometer measures sample concentration. Moreover, our GPC/SEC system features an autosampler, enabling full automation of up to 100 sample analyses.

The outcome of this comprehensive analysis includes information on the polymer's structure, namely:

  • Molecular weight distribution and related variables, such as the number-averaged molecular weight (Mn), weight-averaged molecular weight (Mw), and size-averaged molecular weight (Mz).
  • Molecular volume, often represented by the radius of gyration.
  • Conformation and branching.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal

Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrometer (FTIR) (Frontier, Perkin Elmer) 

Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy is an analytical vibrational spectroscopy technique that provides information about the molecular structure of a sample. Its principle is based on the fact that covalent bonds in a molecule will absorb radiation within a specific IR wavelength region, leading to changes in the vibrational energy of the bonds. Absorption peaks within the IR region are usually sharper when compared with absorption peaks from the ultraviolet and visible regions, and different chemical bonds and functional groups absorb at different IR frequencies. As such, IR spectroscopy can be very sensitive to the detection of functional groups, and the absorbance/transmittance spectrum constitutes a molecular fingerprint. FT-IR can be used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of solid samples (powders, dense materials, thick films, gels), thin layers on reflective surfaces, and liquids. The available accessories allow for different analytical methods, namely:

  • Transmittance
  • ATR (Attenuated total reflectance)
  • IRRAS (Infra-red reflectance absorption spectroscopy), which requires a reflective surface


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal


Quartz Crystal Microbalance (Q-Sense, NanoScience Instrument) 

The Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) is used for measuring small changes in mass on the surface of a quartz crystal. It is based on the principle that the resonant frequency of a quartz crystal is proportional to its mass. When mass is added to or removed from the crystal surface, the resonant frequency shifts and this shift can be used to quantify the mass change.


Responsible for the assays: Ricardo Vidal



M. Manuela Brás, Aureliana Sousa, Tânia B. Cruz, Jonas Michalewski, Marina Leite, Susana R. Sousa, Pedro L. Granja, Manfred Radmacher. Microrheological comparison of melanoma cells by atomic force microscopy, J Biol Phys 2024 Mar;50(1):55-69. doi: 10.1007/s10867-023-09648-w.

Brás MM, Cruz TB, Maia AF, Oliveira MJ, Sousa SR, Granja PL, Radmacher M Mechanical Properties of Colorectal Cancer Cells Determined by Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy: A Novel Biomarker. Cancers. 2022, 14(20):5053. doi: 10.3390/cancers14205053

Bras MM, Sousa RS, Carneiro F, Radmacher M, Granja PL, Mechanobiology of Colorectal Cancer. Cancers 14(8):1945, 2022; doi: 10.3390/cancers14081945

Brás MM, Radmacher M, Sousa SR, Granja PL Melanoma in the Eyes of Mechanobiology Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020 (8):54. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.00054.

Selvaggio G, Canato S, Pawar A, Monteiro PT, Guerreiro PS, Brás MM, Janody F, Chaouiya C., Hybrid Epithelial-Mesenchymal Phenotypes Are Controlled by Microenvironmental Factors. Cancer research 80: 2407-2420, 2020; doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3147 PMID: 32217696

Sara I. Faria, Rita Teixeira-Santos, Luciana C. Gomes, Elisabete R. Silva, João Morais, Vítor Vasconcelos and Filipe J. M. Mergulhão. Experimental Assessment of the Performance of Two Marine Coatings to Curb Biofilm Formation of Microfoulers. Coatings 2020, 10, 893; doi:10.3390/coatings10090893.

Bruna Costa, Rita Mota, Paula Tamagnini, M. Cristina L. Martins and Fabíola Costa. Natural Cyanobacterial Polymer-Based Coating as a Preventive Strategy to Avoid Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections, Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 279; doi:10.3390/md18060279

Patrícia C. Henriques, Andreia T. Pereira, Ana L. Pires, André M. Pereira, Fernão D. Magalhães and Inês C. Gonçalves, Graphene Surfaces Interaction with Proteins, Bacteria, Mammalian Cells, and Blood Constituents: The Impact of Graphene Platelet Oxidation and Thickness, ACS Appl.Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 18

Parreira P, Monteiro C, Graça V, Gomes J, Maia S, Gomes P, Gonçalves IC, Martins MCL. Immobilized Antimicrobial Peptides for Gastric Infection Management. Scientific Reports. 2019. 9:18212

Monteiro C, Costa F, Pirttilä AM, Tejesvi MV, Martins MCL, Prevention of urinary catheter aciated infections by coating antimicrobial peptides from crowberry endophytes. Scientific Reports. 2019.9. 10753

Andreia T. Pereira, Patrícia C. Henriques, Paulo C. Costa, Maria Cristina L. Martins, Fernão D. Magalhães, Inês C. Gonçalves. Graphene oxide-reinforced poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) hydrogels with extreme stiffness and high-strength. Composites Science and Technology 2019;184:107819.

Costa B, Mota R, Parreira P, Tamagnini P, Martins MCL, Costa F. Broad-Spectrum Anti-adhesive Coating Based on an Extracellular Polymer from a Marine Cyanobacterium. Marine Drugs. 2019 Apr 24;17(4). pii: E243. doi: 10.3390/md17040243

Costa B, Mota R, Parreira P, Tamagnini P, Martins MCL, Costa F. Broad-Spectrum Anti-adhesive Coating Based on an Extracellular Polymer from a Marine Cyanobacterium. Marine Drugs. 2019 Apr 24;17(4). pii: E243. doi: 10.3390/md17040243sso

Barros D, Conde-Soua E, Gonçalves AM, Han WM, García AJ, Amaral IF, Pêgo AP. Engineering Hydrogels with Affinity-Bound Laminin as 3D Neural Stem Cell Culture Systems. Biomaterials Science 2019; 7, 5338-5349 (DOI: 10.1039/C9BM00348G)

Barros D, Parreira P, Furtado J, Ferreira-da-Silva F, Conde-Sousa E, Garcia AJ, Martins MCL, Amaral IF, Pêgo AP. An affinity-based approach to engineer laminin-presenting cell instructive microenvironments. Biomaterials. 2019; 192:601-11. (DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.10.039)

Catarina C. Coelhoa, Rita Araújo, Paulo A. Quadros , Susana R. Sousa, Fernando J. Monteiroa. Antibacterial bone substitute of hydroxyapatite and magnesium oxide to prevent dental and orthopaedic infections, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 97, April 2019, Pages 529-538

D. Barros, P. Parreira, J. Furtado, F. Ferreira-da-Silva, E. Conde-Sousa, A.J. García, M.C.L. Martins, I.F. Amaral, A.P. Pêgo, An Affinity-Based Approach to Engineer Laminin-Presenting Cell Instructive Microenvironments, Biomaterials, 192. 2019, 601–611.

Elisa Santovitoa, Jose das Neves , Donato Grecoa, Vito D’Ascanioa, Bruno Sarmentob, Antonio Francesco Logriecoa and Giuseppina Avantaggiato. Antimicrobial properties of rosin acids-loaded nanoparticles against antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant foodborne pathogens. ARTIFICIAL CELLS, NANOMEDICINE, AND BIOTECHNOLOGY 2018, VOL. 46, NO. S3, S414–S422

Rita N. Gomes, Ines Borges, Andreia T. Pereira, Andre F. Maia, Manuel Pestana, Fernao D. Magalhães , Artur M. Pinto , Ines C. GonçalvesAntimicrobial graphene nanoplatelets coatings for silicone catheters. Carbon Volume 139, November 2018, Pages 635-647

Gomes, C. P., Leiro, V., Lopes, C. D., Spencer, A. P., Pêgo, A. P. Fine tuning neuronal targeting of nanoparticles by adjusting the ligand grafting density and combining PEG spacers of different length. Acta Biomaterialia. (2018).

P.M.D. Moreno, A.R. Ferreira, D. Salvador, M.T. Rodrigues, M. Torrado, E.D. Carvalho, U. Tedebark, M.M. Sousa, I.F. Amaral, J. Wengel, A.P. Pêgo, Hydrogel-assisted antisense LNA gapmer delivery for in situ gene silencing in spinal cord injury, Molecular Therapy: Nucleic Acid, 2018. DOI: 10.1016/j.omtn.2018.03.009

Carla P. Gomes, Cátia D. F. Lopes, Michael Leitner, Andreas Ebner, Peter Hinterdorfer, and Ana P. Pêgo. Atomic Force Microscopy as a Tool to Assess the Specificity of Targeted Nanoparticles in Biological Models of High Complexity, Adv. Healthcare Mater. 2017, 1700597.

Karabiyik C, Fernandes R, Figueiredo FR, Socodato R, Lambertsen KL, Relvas JB, Santos SD. 2017 Neuronal Rho GTPase Rac1 elimination confers neuroprotection in a mouse model of permanent ischemic stroke. Brain Pathol.

Leiro, V., Garcia, J.P., Moreno, P., Spencer, A.P., Fernandez-Villamarin, M., Riguera, R., Fernandez-Megia, E., Pêgo, A.P. 2017 “Biodegradable PEG-GATGE dendritic block copolymers: Synthesis and Biofunctionality Assessment as Vectors of siRNA”. Journal of Materials Chemistry B. 5, 4901-4917.

Costa F, Sousa DM, Lamghari M, Gomes P, Martins MCL. N-acetylcysteine-functionalization coating avoids bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Scientific Reports. 2017; 7;17374; 1-13

Felgueiras HP, Wang LM; Ren KF; Querido M; Jin Q; Barbosa MA; Ji J; Martins MCL. Octadecyl chains immobilized onto hyaluronic acid coatings by thiol-ene "click chemistry" increase the surface antimicrobial properties and prevent platelet adhesion and activation to polyurethane. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2017; 9 (9) 7979–7989

Seabra CL, Nunes C, Gomez-Lazaro, Correia M, Machado JC, Gonçalves IC, ReisCA,Reis S, Martins MCL.Docosahexaenoic acid loaded lipid nanoparticles with bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2017; 519; 128-137

J.R. Dias, S. Baptista-Silva, C.M.T. de Oliveira, A. Sousa, A.L. Oliveira, P.J. Bártolo, P.L. Granja, In situ crosslinked electrospun gelatin nanofibers for skin regeneration, European Polymer Journal, Volume 95, 2017, Pages 161-173

Castro F, Pinto ML, Silva AM, Pereira CL, Teixeira GQ, Gomez-Lazaro M, Santos SG, Barbosa MA, Gonçalves RM, Oliveira MJ. Pro-inflammatory chitosan/poly(γ-glutamic acid) nanoparticles modulate human antigen-presenting cells phenotype and revert their pro-invasive capacity. Acta Biomater. 2017 Nov;63:96-109.

Antunes JC, Pereira CL, Teixeira GQ, Silva RV, Caldeira J, Grad S, Gonçalves RM, Barbosa MA, Poly(γ-glutamic acid) and poly(γ-glutamic acid)-based nanocomplexes enhance type II collagen production in intervertebral disc.J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2017 Jan;28(1):6

Andreia M. Silva, Maria I. Almeida, José H. Teixeira, André F. Maia, George A. Calin, Mário A. Barbosa, Susana G. Santos 2017, Dendritic Cell-derived Extracellular Vesicles mediate Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cell recruitment. Under minor revision in Scientific Reports.

Antunes JC, Pereira CL, Teixeira GQ, Silva RV, Caldeira J, Grad S, Gonçalves RM, Barbosa MA, Poly(g-glutamic acid) and poly(g-glutamic acid)-based nanocomplexes enhance type II collagen production in intervertebral disc, J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2017;28(1):6.

Oliveira MI, Pinto ML, Gonçalves RM, Martins MC, Santos SG, Barbosa MA. Adsorbed Fibrinogen stimulates TLR-4 on monocytes and induces BMP-2 expression. Acta Biomater. 2017 Feb;49:296-305.

I.C. Gonçalves, A. Magalhães, A.M.S. Costa, J.R. Oliveira, P.C. Henriques, P. Gomes, C.A. Reis, M.C.L. Martins. Bacteria-targeted biomaterials: glycan-coated microspheres to bind Helicobacter pylori. Acta Biomaterialia 2016; 33:40–50

Teixeira GQ, Leite Pereira C, Castro F, Ferreira JR, Gomez-Lazaro M, Aguiar P, Barbosa MA, Neidlinger-Wilke C, Goncalves RM, Anti-inflammatory Chitosan/Poly-?-glutamic acid nanoparticles control inflammation while remodeling extracellular matrix in degenerated intervertebral disc. Acta Biomater. 2016; 42:168-79

Daniel M. Vasconcelos, Raquel M Gonc?alves, Catarina R Almeida, Ine?s O Pereira, Marta I Oliveira, Nuno Neves, Andreia M Silva, Anto?nio C Ribeiro, Carla Cunha, Ana R Almeida, Cristina C. Ribeiro, Ana M. Gil, Elisabeth Seebach, Katharyna L. Kynast, Wiltrud Richter, Meriem Lamghari, Susana G Santos and Ma?rio A Barbosa, "Fibrinogen scaffolds with immunomodulatory properties promote in vivo bone regeneration”, Biomaterials 2016;111:163-178.

Cunha-Reis C, Machado A, Barreiros L, Araújo F, Nunes R, Seabra V, Ferreira D, Segundo MA, Sarmento B, das Neves J. Nanoparticles-in-film for the combined vaginal delivery of anti-HIV microbicide drugs. J Control Release. 2016 Dec 10;243:43-53.


Braz L Grenha A, Ferreira D, Rosa da Costa AM, Gamazo C, Sarmento B, Chitosan/sulfated locust bean gum nanoparticles: In vitro and in vivo evaluation towards an application in oral immunization. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016 Dec 31;96:786-79


Abreu CM, Paula HC, Seabra V, Feitosa JP, Sarmento B, de Paula RCSynthesis and characterization of non-toxic and thermo-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted cashew gum nanoparticles as a potential epirubicin delivery matrix. Carbohydr Polym. 2016 Dec 10; 154: 77-85.

Goes CP, Varela-Moreira A, Leiro V,Lopes CD, Moreno PM, Gomez-Lazaro M, Pêgo AP. A high-throughput bioimaging study to assess the impact of chitosan-based nanoparticle degradation on DNA delivery performance. Acta Biomater. 2016 Dec;46:129-140.


Rodrigues F, Alves AC, Nunes C, Sarmento B, Amaral MH, Reis S, Oliveira MB. Permeation of topically applied caffeine from a food by-product in cosmetic formulations: Is nanoscale in vitro approach an option? Int J Pharm. 2016 Nov 20;513(1-2):496-503.

Fonte P, Andrade F, Azevedo C, Pinto J, Seabra V, van de Weert M, Reis S, Sarmento B. Effect of the Freezing Step in the Stability and Bioactivity of Protein-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Upon Lyophilization. Pharm Res. 2016 Nov;33(11):2777-93.

Sgorla D, <Bunhak ÉJ, Cavalcanti OA, Fonte P, Sarmento B. Exploitation of lipid-polymeric matrices at nanoscale for drug delivery applications. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2016 Sep;13(9):1301-9

Laranjeira MS, Moço A, Ferreira J, Coimbra S, Costa E, Santos-Silva A, Ferreira PJ, Monteiro FJ Different hydroxyapatite magnetic nanoparticles for medical imaging: Its effects on hemostatic, hemolytic activity and cellular cytotoxicity. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2016

Machado A, Cunha-Reis C, Araújo F, Nunes R, Seabra V, Ferreira D, das Neves J, Sarmento B Development and in vivo safety assessment of tenofovir-loaded nanoparticles-in-film as a novel vaginal microbicide delivery system. Acta Biomater. 2016 Oct 15;44:332-40.

Felgueiras HP,Murthy NS, , Brás MM, Migonney V, Kohn J, Competitive Adsorption of Plasma Proteins Using Quartz Crystal Microbalance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces, 2016,

Ribeiro M, Ferraz MP, Monteiro FJ, Fernandes MH, Beppu MM, Mantione D, Sardon H. Antibacterial silk fibroin/nanohydroxyapatite hydrogels with silver and gold nanoparticles for bone regeneration. Nanomedicine. 2016 Aug 31; 13(1):231-239.

González-Delgado JA, Castro PM, Machado A, Araújo F,Rodrigues F, Korsak B, Ferreira M, Tomé JP, Sarmento B. Hydrogels containing porphyrin-loaded nanoparticles for topical photodynamic applications. Int J Pharm. 2016 Aug 20;510(1):221-31.

das Neves J, Nunes R, Rodrigues F, Sarmento B. Nanomedicine in the development of anti-HIV microbicides. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Aug 1;103:57-75. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2016.01.017




ARBRE - Association of Resources for Biophysical Research in Europe


PPBI - Portuguese Platform of BioImage